Orally, vitamin E is used for replacement therapy in vitamin E deficiency, treating and preventing cardiovascular disease, including slowing atherogenesis and preventing heart attacks. It is used orally for angina, thrombophlebitis, intermittent claudication, hypertension, and preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury after coronary artery bypass surgery. Vitamin E is also used orally for treating diabetes and its complications, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Vitamin E is used orally for preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers, colorectal cancer and polyps, and gastric, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Vitamin E is used orally for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, and as an adjunct in the treatment of epilepsy. Vitamin E is also used orally for preventing pre-eclampsia in high-risk women, for improving physical endurance, increasing energy, preventing allergies, for asthma and respiratory infections, swine flu, for protecting against negative effects of air pollution, preventing aging, preventing cataracts, and improving healing after photoreactive keratectomy. It is also used orally for inflammatory skin disorders, aging skin, sunburns, cystic fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), dysmenorrhea, habitual abortion, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes associated with breast cancer, infertility, impotence, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic cystic mastitis, mammary dysplasia, peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), porphyria, tardive dyskinesia, neuromuscular disorders, Huntington’s disease, chronic progressive hereditary chorea, and myotonic dystrophy. Additionally, vitamin E is used orally for preventing vitamin E deficiency in people with malabsorption syndromes. Vitamin E is used orally for correcting erythrocyte membrane abnormalities in people with beta-thalassemia, for hereditary spherocytosis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency or sickle-cell anemia.