Vitamin A is used for vitamin A deficiency, improving vision, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataracts, infection, and improving immune function. It is also used orally for skin conditions including acne, eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, wounds, burns, sunburn, keratosis follicularis (Darier’s disease), ichthyosis (non-inflammatory skin scaling), lichen planus pigmentosus, and pityriasis rubra pilaris. It is also used for diabetes mellitus, fever, liver disease, or cystic fibrosis with liver involvement. It is also used orally for heavy menses, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), atrophic vaginitis, candidiasis, fibrocystic breast disease, reduced sperm count, gastrointestinal ulcers, Crohn’s disease, periodontal disease, Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis), sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Vitamin A is also used for reducing complications of measles, shigellosis, atrophic rhinitis, loss of sense of smell, asthma, persistent headaches, kidney stones, hyperthyroidism, anemia, deafness, tinnitus, and leukoplakia. Other oral uses include preventing and treating cancer, degenerative diseases of the nervous system, protecting the heart and cardiovascular system (antioxidant effects), and slowing the aging process. Vitamin A is used orally to decrease morbidity associated with malaria in children, and to reduce morbidity and mortality from pneumonia and HIV in children with vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is also used orally to decrease the risk of HIV transmission to the fetus during pregnancy and transmission to the newborn during childbirth and early breast-feeding periods.
Vitamin C is used for preventing and treating scurvy and increasing iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is also used for increasing the healing rate of wounds, burns, fractures, ulcers, and pressure sores. Vitamin C is used in preventing and treating the common cold and other viral infections, bronchitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, tuberculosis, dysentery, furunculosis, hematuria, retinal hemorrhages, hemorrhagic states, and anemia. Vitamin C is also used orally for atherosclerosis, preventing vascular thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, lowering cholesterol, glaucoma, cataracts, gallbladder disease, dental caries, pyorrhea, gum infections, constipation, peptic ulcer, acne, and dermatitis. It also is used for improving immune function, swine flu, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, cystitis, prostatitis, infertility, and diabetes. It is also used orally for mental depression, cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, physical and mental stress, fatigue, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), autism, collagen disorders, arthritis, bursitis, back pain, disc inflammation, cancer, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis, and gout. Other uses include improving physical endurance, treating Lyme disease, reducing aging, treating heat prostration, counteracting the side effects of cortisone and related drugs, aiding drug withdrawal in addiction, and in the treatment of levodopa, succinylcholine, interferon, aspirin, and arsenic toxicity. Other uses include use as an adjunct to radiation therapy and treating chronic radiation proctitis.
Vitamin D is used for preventing osteoporosis, muscle weakness, enhancing immune function, preventing autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, and cancer. It is also used orally for rickets, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), influenza, preventing falls and fractures in people at risk for osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, osteomalacia, anticonvulsant-induced osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, osteitis fibrosa in people on dialysis, hepatic osteodystrophy, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Vitamin D is also used for preventing and treating hypocalcemia and tetany in premature infants’ bone disorders in people with familial hypophosphatemia, hypophosphatemia associated with Fanconi syndrome, and hypocalcemia associated with postoperative or idiopathic hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. Other uses include plaque-type psoriasis, actinic keratosis, lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinomas, vitiligo, scleroderma, myelodysplastic syndrome, periodontal disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. Vitamin D is also used orally to treat severe proximal myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency or myopathy associated with the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin-induced myopathy), and to maintain bone density in prostatic cancer patients at risk for osteoporosis when treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRH-a).
Orally, vitamin E is used for replacement therapy in vitamin E deficiency, treating and preventing cardiovascular disease, including slowing atherogenesis and preventing heart attacks. It is used orally for angina, thrombophlebitis, intermittent claudication, hypertension, and preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury after coronary artery bypass surgery. Vitamin E is also used orally for treating diabetes and its complications, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Vitamin E is used orally for preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers, colorectal cancer and polyps, and gastric, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Vitamin E is used orally for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, and as an adjunct in the treatment of epilepsy. Vitamin E is also used orally for preventing pre-eclampsia in high-risk women, for improving physical endurance, increasing energy, preventing allergies, for asthma and respiratory infections, swine flu, for protecting against negative effects of air pollution, preventing aging, preventing cataracts, and improving healing after photoreactive keratectomy. It is also used orally for inflammatory skin disorders, aging skin, sunburns, cystic fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), dysmenorrhea, habitual abortion, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes associated with breast cancer, infertility, impotence, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic cystic mastitis, mammary dysplasia, peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), porphyria, tardive dyskinesia, neuromuscular disorders, Huntington’s disease, chronic progressive hereditary chorea, and myotonic dystrophy. Additionally, vitamin E is used orally for preventing vitamin E deficiency in people with malabsorption syndromes. Vitamin E is used orally for correcting erythrocyte membrane abnormalities in people with beta-thalassemia, for hereditary spherocytosis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency or sickle-cell anemia.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Orally, thiamine is used for thiamine deficiency syndromes, including beriberi, peripheral neuritis associated with pellagra, and neuritis of pregnancy. It is used for poor appetite, ulcerative colitis, chronic diarrhea, GI disorders, cerebellar syndrome, as an insect repellent, diabetic neuropathy, AIDS, maintaining a positive mental attitude, enhancing learning abilities, heart disease, alcoholism, stress, improving athletic performance, aging, preventing cervical cancer, and progression of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Thiamine is also used orally for canker sores, immunodepression, memory loss including Alzheimer’s disease, vision problems such as cataracts and glaucoma, motion sickness, and increasing energy.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin is used for preventing riboflavin deficiency, treating ariboflavinosis, preventing migraine headaches, treating acne, congenital methemoglobinemia, muscle cramps, preventing cervical cancer, burning feet syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, red blood cell aplasia, multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, eye fatigue, cataracts, and glaucoma. It is also used orally for increasing energy levels, boosting immune system function, maintaining healthy hair, skin, mucous membranes, and nails, slowing aging, canker sores, memory loss including Alzheimer’s disease, ulcers, boosting athletic performance, promoting healthy reproductive function, burns, alcoholism, liver disease, and sickle cell anemia.
Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide)
Orally, niacin is used for hyperlipidemia. It is also used in conjunction with other therapies for peripheral vascular disease, vascular spasm, migraine headache, Meniere’s syndrome, vertigo, and to reduce the diarrhea associated with cholera. Orally, niacin or niacinamide is used for preventing vitamin B3 deficiency, treating pellagra, schizophrenia, drug-induced hallucinations, Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline, chronic brain syndrome, hyperkinesis, depression, motion sickness, alcohol dependence, vasculitis associated with skin lesions, and edema. Niacin or niacinamide is also used for acne, leprosy, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), preventing premenstrual headache, improving digestion, for protection from toxins and pollutants, for reducing the effects of aging, memory loss, arthritis, lowering blood pressure, improving circulation, promoting relaxation, improving orgasm, and preventing cataracts. Niacinamide is also used orally for treating diabetes, and the skin conditions bullous pemphigoid and granuloma annulare.
Orally, pyridoxine is used most commonly for treating premenstrual syndrome (PMS), vitamin B6 deficiency, and “morning sickness” in pregnancy, depression associated with pregnancy or oral contraceptive use, primary homocystinuria, hyperhomocysteinemia, Alzheimer’s disease, and preventing neuritis associated with isoniazid or penicillamine. Pyridoxine is also used orally for boosting immunity, muscle cramps, protection against cancer, diuresis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, primary hyperoxaluria, preventing kidney stones, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), night leg cramps, arthritis, and allergies. It is used for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, migraine headaches, asthma, pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, preventing anemia due to pyridoxine deficiency, xanthurenic aciduria, primary cystathioninuria, acne, various skin conditions, stimulating appetite, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, radiation sickness, menopausal symptoms, infertility, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, suppressing postpartum lactation, and to improve dream recall. Pyridoxine is also used orally for dizziness, motion sickness, psychosis, autism, hyperkinesis, acute chorea, chronic progressive hereditary chorea, tardive dyskinesia, absence (petit mal) seizures, febrile convulsions, gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina, diabetes, diabetic neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), alcohol intoxication, preventing leukopenia secondary to mitomycin, reversing procarbazine neurotoxicity, preventing seizures associated with cycloserine, fluorouracil-induced erythrodysesthesia, and acute hydrazine toxicity. It is also used orally to decrease the rate of restenosis after coronary angioplasty, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and for Lyme disease.
Folic Acid (Folate)
Folic acid is used for preventing and treating folate deficiency, megaloblastic anemia resulting from folate or vitamin B12 deficiency, megaloblastic anemia in sickle cell disease, and for folate deficiency in intestinal malabsorption or sprue. It is also used for preventing neural tube defects, reducing the risk of colorectal and cervical cancer, and preventing pregnancy loss. Folic acid is also used for hyperhomocysteinemia, coronary artery disease, fragile-X syndrome, gingival hyperplasia, memory deficit, Alzheimer’s disease, age-related hearing loss, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), vitiligo, osteoporosis, restless leg syndrome, insomnia, depression, peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy, and AIDS. It is also used for reducing lometrexol and methotrexate toxicity and for preventing signs of aging, heart attack, and stroke. Folic acid is also used for other conditions commonly associated with folate deficiency, including ulcerative colitis, liver disease, alcoholism, renal dialysis, and drug-induced deficiency related to phenytoin, primidone, barbiturates, oral contraceptives, and nitrofurantoin.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Orally, vitamin B12 is used for treating pernicious anemia and preventing and treating vitamin B12 deficiency. It is also used orally for treating primary hyperhomocysteinemia, heart disease, male infertility, diabetes, memory loss, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, psychiatric disorders, osteoporosis, tendonitis, immunosuppression, AIDS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), asthma, allergies, vitiligo, preventing cervical cancer, and seborrheic dermatitis. It is also used orally for thyrotoxicosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), multiple sclerosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) periodontal disease, canker sores, tinnitus, hemorrhage, malignancy, and liver and kidney disease. Vitamin B12 is also used orally for aging, improving concentration, mood elevation, boosting energy, Lyme disease, maintaining fertility, and protection against the toxins and allergens from tobacco smoke.
Biotin is used for preventing and treating biotin deficiency associated with pregnancy, long-term parenteral nutrition, malnutrition, rapid weight loss, and multiple carboxylase deficiency. It is also used orally for hair loss, brittle nails, seborrheic dermatitis of infancy, diabetes, managing neuropathy, reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, improving efficiency of metabolism, building DNA, preventing birth defects, increasing sugar utilization, and treating elevated triglycerides and mild depression.
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
Pantothenic acid is used for treating dietary deficiencies, acne, alcoholism, allergies, alopecia, asthma, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome, candidiasis, cardiac failure, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis, convulsions, and cystitis. It is also used orally for dandruff, depression, diabetic neuropathy, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, glossitis, gray hair, headaches, hyperactivity, hypoglycemia, insomnia, irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, muscular cramps in the legs associated with pregnancy or alcoholism, neuralgia, and obesity. Pantothenic acid is also used orally for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, peripheral neuritis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), prostatitis, protection against mental and physical stress and anxiety, reducing adverse effects of thyroid therapy in congenital hypothyroidism, reducing signs of aging, reducing susceptibility to colds and other infections, retarded growth, shingles, skin disorders, stimulating adrenal glands, stomatitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, salicylate toxicity, streptomycin neurotoxicity, vertigo, and wound healing.
Calcium is used for treatment and prevention of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, rickets, and latent tetany. It is also used orally for hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), leg cramps associated with pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, and reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Calcium is also used orally for diarrhea and rectal epithelial hyperproliferation following intestinal bypass, hypertension, elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Lyme disease, elevated fluoride levels in children, and elevated lead levels. Calcium carbonate is used orally as an antacid. Calcium carbonate and calcium acetate are also used orally as phosphate binders in renal failure. Calcium is also used for metformin-related vitamin B12 deficiency.
Magnesium is used for treating and preventing magnesium deficiency. It is also used orally as a laxative for constipation. Magnesium is used for treating symptoms of asthma and allergic rhinitis; for cardiovascular diseases including angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, coronary heart disease and hyperlipidemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, mitral valve prolapse, vasospastic angina, myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, and as an antacid for symptoms of gastric hyperacidity. It is also used orally for treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Lyme disease, fibromyalgia, pregnancy-induced leg cramps, nocturnal leg cramps, diabetes, kidney stones, migraine headaches, osteoporosis, premenstrual syndrome, altitude sickness, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, erythromelalgia, restless leg syndrome, and for preventing hearing loss. Magnesium is also used orally by athletes to increase energy and endurance.
Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency. It is also used orally for treating the common cold, recurrent ear infections, asthma, swine flu, and preventing acute lower respiratory infections. Other oral uses include macular degeneration, night blindness, cataracts, diabetes, hypertension, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), psoriasis, eczema, and acne. It is also used orally for anorexia nervosa, acute diarrhea in children with zinc deficiency, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), blunted sense of taste (hypogeusia), aphthous ulcers, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and peptic ulcers. Other oral uses include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), male infertility, male impotence, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and muscle cramps in patients with cirrhosis. It is also used orally for sickle cell disease, thalassemia, Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, Wilson’s disease, Hansen’s disease, acrodermatitis enteropathica, necrolytic acral erythema, prevention of esophageal cancer, and delayed wound healing associated with zinc deficiency. Zinc is also used orally for improving athletic performance and strength, improving immune function, improving growth and health in zinc-deficient stunted children, tinnitus, and severe head injuries. It is also used orally and locally for parasitic infections, including prevention and treatment of malaria.
Copper is used for treating copper deficiency, anemia due to copper deficiency, zinc-induced copper deficiency, improving wound healing, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. Copper is essential in increasing energy, forming connective tissue, and metabolizing iron. Copper is important in maintaining normal function of the brain and nervous system. Copper aids with neurotransmitter synthesis, break down of neurotransmitters, and formation of myelin. Copper also forms melanin-giving color to our hair, skin, and eyes, serves as an antioxidant, and regulates gene expression.
Manganese is used for prevention and treatment of manganese deficiency, osteoporosis, epilepsy, microcytic anemia, and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Manganese is a powerful antioxidant and controls the metabolism of many nutrients. Without manganese, the body is unable to properly break down carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese is also essential to making urine, sugar, and the neurotransmitter GABA. In combination, manganese is used with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride for osteoarthritis.
Chromium is used for improving glycemic control in type 1 and 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), corticosteroid-induced hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia, for hypercholesterolemia, and for increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in patients taking beta-blockers. It is also used orally for weight loss, to increase muscle mass and fat-free mass, and decrease body fat. Chromium is also used orally to enhance athletic performance, to increase energy and vigor, and to treat dysthymic disorder (a mild form of depression) and atypical depression.
Molybdenum is used for liver disease, yeast infections, HIV/AIDS, and Lyme disease. It is also used for sulfite sensitivity, chemical sensitivity, allergies, asthma, acne, anemia, gout, cancer, insomnia, eczema, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and Wilson’s disease. It is also used to prevent osteoporosis, prevent cavities, and increase libido. Molybdenum plays a role in amino acid synthesis, break down of nucleotides, and metabolism of drugs and toxins. It is also used for prevention of gastroesophageal cancer.
Coenzyme Q-10 is used for congestive heart failure (CHF), angina, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diabetes, hypertension, periodontal disease, cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (Adriamycin) chemotherapy, and breast cancer. It is also used orally for Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, increasing exercise tolerance, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Lyme disease, pre-eclampsia, and warfarin-induced alopecia. Coenzyme Q-10 is also used orally for stimulating the immune systems of people with HIV/AIDS, life extension, male infertility, idiopathic asthenozoospermia, migraine headache, quinone-responsive mitochondrial encephalomyelopathy, aging skin, and for preventing “statin”-induced myopathy.
L-carnitine is used for treating primary L-carnitine deficiency, secondary L-carnitine deficiency due to inborn errors of metabolism, and L-carnitine deficiency in people requiring hemodialysis. It is also used orally for treating drug-induced L-carnitine deficiency and for treating valproate-induced toxicity. L-carnitine is also used orally for myopathies associated with zidovudine and isotretinoin, myocarditis associated with diphtheria, male infertility, Rett Syndrome, chronic stable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), and myocardial infarction. It is also used orally as a supplement in low birth weight and preterm infants, in strict vegetarians or vegans, and in dieters. L-carnitine is also used for anorexia, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hyperthyroidism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), peripheral vascular disease and intermittent claudication, leg ulcers, and Lyme disease.
Green Tea extract
Green tea is used to improve cognitive performance and mental alertness. It is also used to treat stomach disorders, vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches. Green tea is also used for weight loss, osteoporosis, breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, and skin cancer related to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (e.g., sunburn) and other environmental causes. It is also used for human papilloma virus (HPV), genital warts, perianal warts, cervical dysplasia, Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypotension, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), dental caries, kidney stones, and skin damage.
Chlorella is used as a food supplement and source of nutrients, including protein, nucleic acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Chlorella is also used orally for cancer prevention, stimulating the immune system, improving response to flu vaccine, increasing white blood cell counts (in people with HIV infection or cancer), preventing colds, to protect the body from the effects of radiation (during cancer therapy), to protect the body from toxic metals such as lead and mercury, and to slow aging. It is also used orally to increase beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract in order to improve digestion, and to help treat ulcers, colitis, Crohn’s disease, and diverticulosis. Chlorella is also promoted for the prevention of stress-induced ulcers, treatment of constipation, bad breath, and hypertension, as an antioxidant, to reduce serum cholesterol, to increase energy, to detoxify the body, and as a source of magnesium to promote mental health, relieve premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and reduce asthma attacks. It is also used orally for fibromyalgia.
Bromelain is used for acute postoperative and post-traumatic conditions of swelling, especially of the nasal and para-nasal sinuses. It is also used orally for burn debridement, anti-inflammatory action, allergic rhinitis, prevention of epinephrine-induced pulmonary edema, smooth muscle relaxation, stimulation of muscle contractions, inhibition of blood platelet aggregation, enhanced antibiotic absorption, cancer prevention, shortening of labor, and enhanced excretion of fat. Bromelain is also used orally for mild ulcerative colitis.
In combination with trypsin and rutin, bromelain is used orally for osteoarthritis.